How does a Lithium-Ion Battery work?

How does a lithium-ion battery work?

In a few words: In a lithium-ion battery, the electrical energy from the wall socket is converted into chemical energy when it is charged.

How does a lithium ion battery work

When discharging, the chemical energy becomes electrical energy again, which powers the device. 

Each battery has two poles.

The lithium-ion battery is a rechargeable battery. 

A rechargeable battery is also called an accumulator.

How does a lithium ion battery work
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What happens to the electric current during charging a lithium-ion battery?

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A lithium-ion battery generates or draws current by the displacement of lithium ions. During charging, positively charged lithium-ions move through an electrolyte from the positive electrode to the negative electrode. 

That – while the charging current delivers the electrons through the external circuit.

How is the electric current generated in a lithium-ion battery?

A lithium-ion battery generates or draws current by the displacement of lithium-ions. When battery current is consumed, positively charged lithium-ions move through an electrolyte from the negative electrode to the positive electrode.

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Where in the battery is the energy stored?

In lithium-ion batteries, the electrical energy is stored in the form of chemical energy in the two electrodes. The positive electrode is called the cathode and the negative electrode is called the anode.

Therefore, the cathode and anode are the heart of every battery – because these “pieces” in the battery store effectively the energy.

See our videos to understand where the Cathode in a Lithium-Ion Battery and Anode in a lithium-Ion Battery is located.

What is an active battery material?

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The cathode and anode are made of active materials. The term “active” indicates that this material is actively storing energy.

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How is a rechargeable battery constructed?

A lithium-ion battery is made up of a cathode, the positive pole, and an anode, the negative pole. The separating layer in the middle (separator, membrane, electrolyte) prevents a short circuit from occurring.

However, the separating layer transports the positively charged lithium-ions very well.

See the Video to understand where the separating layer (Separator) is located in the battery.

Which is currently the best lithium-ion battery on the market?

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The energy density of the best commercial high-end lithium-ion battery (bare cell density) is between 250 Wh/kg and 265 Wh/kg (2023).

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Can Lithium-Ion Accumulators be recycled?

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Yes. Lithium-ion Batteries can be recycled. See more about battery recycling in our paper – circular economy and lithium-ion batteries.

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How does a lithium ion battery work