2023
Products, Batteries, Chemicals, and Materials

The List of Chemicals, Materials, and Components
to Make Batteries

Overview of Chemicals and Products at Swiss Battery

Table of Contents

Battery-Separators

Separators for batteries (Microporous Separators)

What are Battery Separators?

A battery separator is a polymeric microporous foil that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

See the separator animation movie below or on YouTube

Preview-Picture---Function-of-a-Separator-in-a-Lithium-Ion-Battery---Animation-Movie Design and Animation by David Vonlanthen, Copyright Swissbattery.com
Play Video about Preview-Picture---Function-of-a-Separator-in-a-Lithium-Ion-Battery---Animation-Movie Design and Animation by David Vonlanthen, Copyright Swissbattery.com

The porous battery separators allow ions of the electrolyte to pass through the battery separator. The battery separator is ionically conductive and electrically an isolator.

Read more extensively about BatterySeparators >>

Battery-Separators: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Separators are:

  • Material: often Polypropylene PP or Polyethylene PE 
  • Porous, often microporous
  • 10-50 micron thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • Relatively low-cost
  • used in Lithium-Ion Batteries 

Read more about Battery-Separators here >>

Battery-
Membranes

What are Battery Membranes?

A battery membrane is an often polymeric or composite foil that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

A battery membrane is a selective barrier-foil – it allows some ions to pass through but stops others.

Compared to battery separators, membranes are much more complex in their morphological and chemical structure. However, they are regularly non-porous.

Swiss Battery has developed an Ultrathin ion-selective polymer-membrane for high-power application.

Download the scientific article here.

Membranes

Battery-Membranes: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Membranes are:

  • Material: e.g. Polyelectrolytes, Fluoropolymers, Polybenzimida-zoles PBI.
  • Ion-selective
  • 25–300 microns thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • high-cost
  • used in Redox-Flow-Batteries (RFB) and Hydrogen-Fuel-cells (FC)

Battery-
Electrolytes

battery-electrolytes from Swiss-Battery-SWIBA

What are Battery Electrolytes?

Battery-Electrolyte are usually solution inside a battery cell. Depending on the type of battery or accumulator, it is being a liquid or paste-like (Gel-like) substance. The liquid consists of a solvent and a salt which is the source for Cations and anions.

Yet, no matter the type of battery or accumulator, the electrolyte serves the same purpose: it allows all ions to move between the cathode and the anode

Moreover, the electrolytes help to charge-compensate the active materials. Ions are electrically charged molecules or atoms. 

These electrolyte-salts are solved in liquids (solvents, used in Lithium-Ion and Lead-acid), gelled and in dry formats. Electrolytes also can be polymers, ceramics (Solid-State-Battery) and molten salts (Sodium-Sulfur battery) .

Battery-Electrolytes
Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Electrolytes are:

  • Salts in organic solvents or water, poly-electrolytes, ionic Gels, Ceramics (e.g. garnet ceramics) or molten Salts. 
  • Ionically highly conductive
  • Cost: low, to very high 
  • Used in any type of battery (electrochemical cell) 

Current Collectors

What are Battery Current Collectors?

The current collector collects the electrons (“the current”) from the electrode materials (anode and cathode) and passes them to the external circuit. 

The current collectors are foils made of a highly electrically and often thermally conductive material, often a metal like copper and aluminum. 

Current-Collectors-for-Batteries-Copyright 2023-2035 by Swiss Battery

The current collectors are responsible to transport all current in the battery cell. The “active battery materials” are orders of magnitude less conductive and could not operate without the current collectors.

Battery-Current Collectors
Properties & Specs of Products

Current-Collectors SWIBA Swiss-Battery
Current collectors are:
  • Material: Copper, Aluminum, stainless steel, Titanium, Carbon, Polymers, Surface-treated metal foils.
  • Electrically highly conductive
  • σ > 1*105 (S/m)
  • 10–50 microns thick
  • medium to high cost
  • Metallic CC are energy intense product
  • used in any type of battery

Poly -electrolytes

What are Polyelectrolytes?

Polyelectrolytes are polymers with repeating units that bear an electrolyte group. These electrolyte groups are of an anionic or cathonic nature. Polyelectrolytes therefore have properties of both electrolytes and polymers, and have a high molecular weight.

Poly-electrolytes are often divided into three types, depending on the primary purpose of their application. These units are:

1. Polycation. For example, Polypyridinium salts and Polybenzimidazole (PBI) salts are bearing cathionic groups and are polycations.

2. Polyanions. For example, poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (PSS) oder polyanion, poly acrylic acid (PAA) and und DNA-single strands oder DNS-double strands.

3. Ampholytic polymers. A polymer containing both cationic and anionic groups, or corresponding ionizable group. 

Depending on the chemical structure of the ionic groups, the ampholytic polymers are called i) zwitter-ionic polymer, ii) polymeric inner salt, or iii)  poly-betaine.

Polymer-Electrolyte

Sometimes Polymer-Electrolyte are referring to a mixture of a neutral Polymer and electrolyte salt. Polyethylenoxide (PEO) and Lithium-salts is a typical “polymer-electrolyte composite” used in rechargeable polymer-lithium ion batteries.

Poly-Electrolytes and Polymer-Electrolyte: Properties & Specs of Products

Polyelectrolytes are

  • Charged, polar 
  • high solubility in solvents
  • ionically conductive
  • low-cost to high- cost

Battery-
Solvents

What are Battery-Solvents?

Battery-Solvents are the liquid substance  inside a battery cell. Depending on the type of battery or accumulator, it is an organic liquidor it is water. The solvent is responsible for the high conductivity of the dissolved electrolyte salt.

Solvents for Batteries

Classes of organic solvents to make liquid batter electrolyte:

1. Carbonates

2. Ether

 

Battery-Solvents are also used for manufacturing the battery electrodes cathode and anode. The solvent is used to form a a homogenous conductive electrode paste which is coated onto currents collectors.

Solvents-for Accumulators. SWIBA-SWISS-BATTERY

Battery and Accumulator-Solvents: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery and Accumulator- Solvents are:

  • Low density, providing a good conductivity of the liquid battery electrolytes
  • high dielectric constant
  • flammable if organic
  • low to medium -cost (except water
  • electrically an isolator
OLVENTS-SWIBA-SWISS-BATTERY

Battery-
Additives

Additives for batteries Image 1

What are Battery-Additives?

Battery-Additives
Properties & Specs of Products

Thermally conductive Plastics & Polymers

What are Thermally conductive Plastics & Polymers?

Lithium-ion batteries and other electronic devices are technically advanced and their functionally is complex. Higher Ampere ranges (current) and signal traffic and higher power and processing speeds have led to an increase in heat generation by batteries and electronic devices.

 

Thermal management has become of high importance,.
Therefore, the demand for thermal management using thermally conductive resins, composites, fillers, and glue is of high importance.

 

Thermally Conductive Polymers & Plastics SWIBA SWISS-Battery

Thermally conductive Plastics & Polymers
Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Anodes

What are Battery Anodes?

Anodes…

Battery-Anodes: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Anodes Drawing 1 - Swiss Battery (SWIBA Technology)

Anodes that are currently used  are:

  • teries 
Anodes-for-batteries---SWIBA---Swiss-Battery
Battery-Cathodes-Drawing-1-Swiss-Battery (SWIBA Technology)

Battery Cathodes

What are Battery Cathodes?

Cathodes are….

Battery-Cathodes: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Cathodes  are:


Cathodes-for-Batteries---SWIBA--SWISS-BATTERY

What is Lithium-Metal used for?

Lithium-Metal

Lithium-metal is used…

Lithium-metal-Picture--for-batteries---SWIBA-Technology-Swiss-battery

Lithium-Metal
Properties & Specs of Products

Applications for Lithium-metal are:

  •  
Lithium-metal  from Swiss-Battery-SWIBA

Ionic Liquids

What are Ionic Liquids?

Ionic Liquids are promising…

Ionic Liquids
Properties & Specs of Products

Ionics-Liquids---SWIBA---SWISS-BATTERY

Ionic liquids are:

  •  

Battery-Management-System BMS

What is a Battery-Management-System BMS?

BMS, short for Battery Management System…

Battery-Management-System BMS: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Management System…

  •  

Solid State Electrolytes

solid-state-electrolyte-from-Swiss-battery-SWIBA

What are Solid -State-Electrolytes?

Solid-sate-electrolytes are often polymeric or composites hat is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

 

Solid -State-Electrolytes: Properties & Specs of Products

Solid-state electrolyte:

  •  

Conductive Carbon Materials

What are Conductive Carbon Materials?

Conductive Carbon Materials…

Conductive Carbon Materials
Properties & Specs of Products

Conductive Carbon Materials are:

  •  

Nanomaterials for Batteries

What are Nanomaterials for Batteries?

Nanomaterials for Batteries

Nanomaterials for Batteries
Properties & Specs of Products

Nanomaterials for Batteries are:

  •  

Battery-Fillers

What ar Battery-Fillers?

A battery separator is a polymeric microporous foil that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

The porous battery separators allow ions of the electrolyte to pass through the battery separator. The battery separator is ionically conductive and electrically an isolator.

Battery Fillers: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Separators are:

  • Material: often Polypropylene PP or Polyethylene PE 
  • Porous, often microporous
  • 10-50 micron thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • Relatively low-cost
  • used in Lithium-Ion Batteries 
Battery-Separators-2023_SWISS-BATTERY-COMPANY-SWIBA-2023.jpg

Gel Electrolytes

What are Gel Electrolytes?

A battery membrane is an often polymeric or composite foil that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

A battery membrane is a selective barrier-foil – it allows some ions to pass through but stops others.

Compared to battery separators, membranes are much more complex in their morphological and chemical structure. However, they are regularly non-porous.

Gel Electrolyte: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Membranes are:

  • Material: e.g. Polyelectrolytes, Fluoropolymers, Polybenzimidazoles PBI.
  • Ion-selective
  • 25–300 microns thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • high-cost
  • used in Redox-Flow- Batteries and Hydrogen-Fuel-cells

Lithium-Metal Batteries

What are Lithium-Metal Batteries?

The current collector collects the electrons (“the current”) from the electrode materials (anode and cathode) and passes them to the external circuit. 

The current collectors are foils made of a highly electrically and often thermally conductive material, often a metal like copper and aluminum. 

The current collectors are responsible to transport all current in the battery cell. The “active battery materials” are orders of magnitude less conductive and could not operate without the current collectors.

Lithium-Metal Batteries
Properties & Specs of Products

Current collectors are:
  • Material: Copper, Aluminum, stainless steel, Titanium, Carbon, Polymers, Surface-treated metal foils.
  • Electrically highly conductive
  • σ > 1*105 (S/m)
  • 10–50 microns thick
  • medium to high cost
  • Metallic CC are energy intense product
  • used in any type of battery

Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)

What are Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)?

Battery-Electrolytes serve as a charge-transporting media to make a battery conductive by promoting the movement of ions from the cathode to the anode on charge and in reverse on discharge.

The electrolytes help to charge-compensate the active materials. Ions are electrically charged molecules or atoms which form salt at room temperature. 

These electrolyte-salts are solved in liquids (solvents, used in Lithium-Ion and Lead-acid), gelled and in dry formats. Electrolytes also can be polymers, ceramics (Solid-State-Battery) and molten salts (Sodium-Sulfur battery) .

Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)
Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Electrolytes are:

  • Salts in organic solvents or water, poly-electrolytes, ionic Gels, Ceramics (e.g. garnet ceramics) or molten Salts. 
  • Ionically highly conductive
  • Cost: low, to very high 
  • Used in any type of battery (electrochemical cell) 

Redox-Flow Batteries (RFBs)

What are Redox-Flow Batteries (RFBs)?

Redox-Flow Batteries (RFBs) are…

Battery Separators are:

  • Material: often Polypropylene PP or Polyethylene PE 
  • Porous, often microporous
  • 10-50 micron thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • Relatively low-cost
  • used in Lithium-Ion Batteries 

Conducting Polymers

Conducting Polymers SWIBA Swiss-Battery

What are Conducting Polymers?

Conducting Polymers is an often polymeric or composite foil that is positioned between the anode and the cathode. This positioning helps prevent electrical short-circuiting.

A battery membrane is a selective barrier-foil – it allows some ions to pass through but stops others.

Compared to battery separators, membranes are much more complex in their morphological and chemical structure. However, they are regularly non-porous.

Battery Fillers: Properties & Specs of Products

Gel Electrolyte: Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Membranes are:

  • Material: e.g. Polyelectrolytes, Fluoropolymers, Polybenzimidazoles PBI.
  • Ion-selective
  • 25–300 microns thick
  • ionically conductive
  • electrically an isolator
  • high-cost
  • used in Redox-Flow- Batteries and Hydrogen-Fuel-cells

Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)

What are Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)?

Battery-Electrolytes serve as a charge-transporting media to make a battery conductive by promoting the movement of ions from the cathode to the anode on charge and in reverse on discharge.

The electrolytes help to charge-compensate the active materials. Ions are electrically charged molecules or atoms which form salt at room temperature. 

These electrolyte-salts are solved in liquids (solvents, used in Lithium-Ion and Lead-acid), gelled and in dry formats. Electrolytes also can be polymers, ceramics (Solid-State-Battery) and molten salts (Sodium-Sulfur battery) .

Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIB)
Properties & Specs of Products

Battery Electrolytes are:

  • Salts in organic solvents or water, poly-electrolytes, ionic Gels, Ceramics (e.g. garnet ceramics) or molten Salts. 
  • Ionically highly conductive
  • Cost: low, to very high 
  • Used in any type of battery (electrochemical cell) 

Lithium-Metal Batteries

What are Lithium-Metal Batteries?

The current collector collects the electrons (“the current”) from the electrode materials (anode and cathode) and passes them to the external circuit. 

The current collectors are foils made of a highly electrically and often thermally conductive material, often a metal like copper and aluminum. 

The current collectors are responsible to transport all current in the battery cell. The “active battery materials” are orders of magnitude less conductive and could not operate without the current collectors.

Lithium-Metal Batteries
Properties & Specs of Products

Current collectors are:
  • Material: Copper, Aluminum, stainless steel, Titanium, Carbon, Polymers, Surface-treated metal foils.
  • Electrically highly conductive
  • σ > 1*105 (S/m)
  • 10–50 microns thick
  • medium to high cost
  • Metallic CC are energy intense product
  • used in any type of battery
Lithium-Ion-Battery-Module-with-cylindrical-cells-SWISS-BATTERY-COMPANY

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Lithium-Ion-Battery-Module-with-Pouch-Cells-swissbattery-gallery-SWIBA

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